D. Fiocco, S. Benvenuti, D. Fiorentino, L. Frabboni, , G Orlandini, F. Pellati, A. Gallone (2011) - Lavender and peppermint essential oils as effective mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors: a basic study - Flavour And Fragrance Journal 26 - pp. 441-446 

Screening and characterization of novel tyrosinase inhibitors is useful for applications in food technology, cosmetics and medicine. The hydrodistilled essential oils from lavender Lavandula spica L. and peppermint Mentha x piperita L.were investigated for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Their composition was assessed by gas chromatography–massspectrometry. Both oils inhibited mushroom tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values were estimated,kinetics were analysed and Ki values were determined. Our results indicate that lavender and peppermint essential oilsmay be promising herbal ingredients for developing depigmenting agents in clinical, cosmetic and industrial processes.


Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello, Ivana Bonaccorsi, Carla Ragonese, Marina Russo, Paola Donato, Luca Santi,  Analytical characterization of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) essential oil. - Flavour And Fragrance Journal 2011; 26(1):34-36

An investigation was performed on 124 samples of Sicilian mandarin essential oils (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), industrially cold pressed by different extraction techniques (Brown Oil Extractor and screw press). Three new components were identified by LCMS-IT-TOF in the non-volatile fraction (demethyl-nobiletin, isosinensetin, demethyl-tangeretin). The results obtained are discussed to evaluate seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oil as well as the influence of the extraction techniques. This study gives a wide view on the composition of Sicilian mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.) essential oils industrially produced during the entire productive season, useful to identify quality parameters for the analytical characterization of this product.


Carlo Bicchi, Erica Liberto, Maura Matteodo, Barbara Sgorbini, Luigi Mondello,  Quantitative analysis of essential oils: a complex task. Flavour And Fragrance Journal 2008; 23(6):382-391

This article provides a critical overview of current methods to quantify essential oil components. The fields of application and limits of the most popular approaches, in particular relative percentage abundance, normalized percentage abundance, concentration and true amount determination via calibration curves, are discussed in detail. A specific paragraph is dedicated to the correct use of the most widely used detectors and to analyte response factors. A set of applications for each approach is also included to illustrate the considerations.


Filippo Maggi, Bruno Tirillini, Fabrizio Papa, Gianni Sagratini, Sauro Vittori, Alberto Cresci, Maria M. Coman, Cinzia Cecchini, Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago campestris (Besser) Grecescu growing in central Italy. Flavour and Fragrance Journal  2009;24 (6):309–315

Essential oil from the flowers and leaves of Ferulago campestris (Apiaceae) from two collection sites in central Italy was analysed by GC–FID and GC–MS and 134 constituents were identified and quantified by calculating the response factors of FID. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted the main fraction of the flower oils, with α-pinene, myrcene and γ-terpinene as the major components. Sesquiterpenes gave the major contribution to the essential oils from the leaves, with the oxygenated components more abundant, α-humulene, spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide being the most representative. The antimicrobial activity (as inhibition zone and MIC) of the essential oils from flowers was evaluated, using a panel of human opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and fungi, by the agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods: the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (MIC = 155–310 μg/ml) and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 310 μg/ml), and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 310–625 μg/ml) were found to be the most susceptible strains.


Renato Bruni, Alberto Bianchi, Maria Grazia Bellardi, Essential oil composition of Agastache anethiodora Britton (Lamiaceae) infected by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Flavour and Fragrance Journal  2007; 22 (1):66-70

Giant hyssop, Agastache anethiodora Britton, cultivated at the Herb Garden of Casola Valsenio, Italy, has been found for the first time naturally infected by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Characteristic symptoms on the leaves were chlorotic or yellow mosaic, ring and line patterns and malformation, followed by yellowing and stunting of the entire plant. CMV was mechanically transmitted to species of the families Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae and identified by applying PAS–ELISA and RT–PCR techniques. The essential oil of both healthy and CMV-infected plants has been evaluated by means of GC–FID and GC–MS, with the object of identifying composition differences caused by the disease. The infection of A. anethiodora by CMV was found to induce significant reduction in the yield of essential oil and several changes in the relative composition of the main components: pulegone, menthone, iso-menthone, methyl chavicole and limonene. Methyl chavicole content, in particular, was drastically reduced. The importance of the phytopathological status of essential oil-bearing plants is outlined.



Raffaele Congiu, Danilo Falconieri, Bruno Marongiu, Alessandra Piras, Silvia Porcedda. Extraction and isolation of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil by supercritical CO2. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 2002; 17 (4):239–244


Supercritical CO2 extraction coupled to a fractional separation technique (SFE) was used to isolate essential oil from the leaves and berries of Pistacia lentiscus L. The technique adopted allowed us to separate the volatile oil from waxes. In the case of the leaf essential oil, the yield was 0.45% by weight of the charged material. The chemical composition of the oil, determined by GC–MS analysis, revealed the presence of β-caryophyllene (31.38%), germacrene D (12.05%) and γ-cadinene (6.48%). Remarkable differences were noticed in the corresponding hydrodistilled oil, composed chiefly by β-pinene (18.71%), β-phellandrene (12.83%) and β-caryophyllene (13.22%). The yield of volatile oil obtained or treating Pistacia lentiscus berries was only 0.2%. β-myrcene, α-pinene and α-phellandrene are the compounds characteristic of the oil obtained with both methods, SFE and hydrodistillation.