Giacinto Bagetta, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Laura Rombolà, Diana Amantea, Rossella Russo, Laura Berliocchi, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa Sakurada, Domenicantonio Rotiroti, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot. Fitoterapia 2010; 81 (6):453–461

Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged.


Filippo Maggi, Cinzia Cecchini, Alberto Cresci, Maria M. Coman, Bruno Tirillini, Gianni Sagratini, Fabrizio Papa, Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Ferula glauca L. (F. communis L. subsp. glauca) growing in Marche (central Italy). Fitoterapia Volume 80, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 68–72

The essential oil obtained from different parts of Ferula glauca L. (formerly considered as a subspecies of F. communis) growing in Marche (central Italy), was analyzed for the first time by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major volatiles were (E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide in leaves, α-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D in flowers, α- and β-pinene in fruits, (E)-β-farnesene, myristicin and elemicin in roots, respectively. The differences in composition detected with respect to F. communis, made the volatile fraction a reliable marker to distinguish between them, and confirm the botanical data at the base of their discrimination. Furthermore, the oil was assayed for its antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution method. B. subtilis was found to be the most sensitive microorganism, with the lowest MIC values.